Consider the role of the United States in the international/global system. Critique the article provided below for this assignment, assessing how the United States as a hegemonic power in the international system has influenced international and state-level decisions in other countries and evaluate what the long-term ramifications might be. You may use additional sources, but for this assignment use the readings provided below as the major sources used in the assessment. The relationship between the international system and the United state is reciprocal. Events in the international system affect policies made at home, while the United states often affect actions taken at the international level. When we consider the role of a hegemonic system, one state can control the domestic and foreign policies of multiple states. Evaluate the United state-level foreign policy decisions and their influence on international actors.
Specifically address the following critical elements must be addressed:
• Assess U.S. Power in the International System.
• Long Term Ramifications.
Evaluate how state-level foreign policy decisions in the United States are influenced by global factors.
Assess how the United States as a hegemonic influences state-level decisions in other countries
Recommend and defend state-level foreign policy actions to address global political issues.
Use APA citation and paper formatting.
The United States and the Influence of a Hegemonic Power in the International System
The international system and what happens within states is not mutually exclusive. While there have been times of independence in the past, many researchers suggest that we are moving into a time of interdependence. Add to this the rise in power of the United States since the end of the Cold War, and the result is the influence of one state as a hegemonic in the international system. History shows movements through multi-polar systems and the bi-polar system of the Cold War. The multi-polar and bi-polar systems were influenced by the use of force and military power of states and alliances.
The use of force created a focus on military capability to coerce states to fall in line with those states that had greater capability, or to create alliances as a means to combat a greater power. Robert Art (1980/2015) categorized these uses of power as “defense, deterrence, compellence, and ‘swaggering,’” (145) and provided insight on how to assess the use of force by states. For this era, it is not always the numeric value of capability that matters, but the ability of a state to “hurt” another state to a level that it cannot take, forcing the state to take actions it may not have readily taken otherwise (Schelling, 1966/ 2015). With the fall of the Soviet Union, the world moved into a uni-polar or a hegemonic system. In a uni-polar system, one state as the ability to influence the international system with little opposition. For the last two decades, the United States has influenced how the international politics game is played.
Political, economic, social, and cultural norms seep into all regions of the world. While some regions take actions against this influence, others welcome it. Some states find economic and development enhanced with U.S. influence, while others find their hands tied. Yet, the United States has not been unaffected by what goes on in the international world. Globalization has created interdependence between states. As we have seen with the recent global economic crisis, what happens in one state can have ripples in the global community and into domestic policies of states. In addition, with the rise of regional and international organizations,intergovernmental organization plays an increasing role in policy decisions made at the state level.
Depending on the level of power a state has to disregard. International organizations and laws, policies made by intergovernmental organizations affect the sovereignty of states to determine domestic policy. Terrorism as a global security issue has also been an increasing factor in global politics. Since the end of the Cold War and the rise of globalization and international terrorism, U.S. domestic policy has been increasingly affected by what happens at the international level. Prior to the 1990s, domestic policy and foreign policy were distinctly different, focusing on different issues and outcomes. Yet, today domestic and foreign policy focus on similar outcomes: fighting terrorism and globalization. The line between domestic and foreign policy has blurred, resulting in increasing influence domestically by international political concerns.
This article evaluates how state-level policy decisions are influenced by global political factors as well as assesses how the United States as a hegemonic influences decision making not only with international organization, but also in the domestic policy decisions in other countries. This reciprocal relationship is important for understanding how to address global political systems issues analyzed.
Art, R. J. (2015). The four functions of force. In R. Art & R. Jervis (Eds.), International politics: Enduring: concepts and contemporary issues (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. (Reprinted from International Security, 5, 133–145).
Schelling, T. C. (2015). The diplomacy of violence. In R. Art & R. Jervis (Eds.), International politics: Enduring: concepts and contemporary issues (12th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson. (Reprinted from Arms and influence, pp. 1–34. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press).
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